Professor Sandra Hale

Professor of Interpreting and Translation
Bachelor of Arts (Interpreting & Translation), NAATI Spanish interpreter/translator & Conference interpreter, Diploma of Education (Italian & Spanish), Master of Applied Linguistics, PhD (Court interpreting/forensic linguistics), Doctorate Hon
School of Humanities & Languages

Contact

+61 2 9385 1279
Room 207, Morven Brown
Kensington Campus
Fields: Translation and Interpretation Studies, Discourse and Pragmatics, Language in Culture and Society (Sociolinguistics), Access to Justice
Tags: Legal Processes, Criminal Justice, Ethnicity, Multiculturalism and Migrant Development and Welfare, Communication Across Languages and Culture

Sandra has a long career as community and conference interpreter, educator and researcher. She is a pioneer in community interpreting pedagogy and research and is recognised internationally as an authority in the field. She is regularly invited as speaker at international conferences and as visiting scholar at different universities around the world. She graduated with the first PhD in court interpreting in Australia, from Macquarie University and she headed the undergraduate and postgraduate I&T courses and the Interpreting & Translation Research Group at the University of Western Sydney. She was co-founder and co-editor of the new research international refereed journal: Translation and Interpreting, and is a member of the Advisory Boards for the journal Interpreting. International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting, and Linguistica Antverpiensia NS- Themes in Translation Studies.

Her books: The discourse of court interpreting and Community interpreting are widely used as text books nationally and internationally, with the latter one already translated into Spanish and Japanese. Sandra is regularly invited as speaker at international conferences and as visiting professor at different universities around the world.

Sandra has also led a number of important national consultancy projects, including the training of the 2000 Olympic language volunteers and the training of all the Community Relations Commission legal interpreters funded by the NSW Attorney General’s Department. She is currently working on a number of research projects on Interpreting.

Research

Sandra graduated with the first PhD in forensic linguistics/court interpreting in Australia in 2001. Since then, her research has covered different aspects of legal interpreting, including issues of quality, accuracy, codes of ethics, role expectations, the impact of interpreters on legal proceedings, the perceptions of interpreters held by service providers and non-English speakers and the impact of working conditions on interpreter performance.

As a pioneer in legal interpreting research, Sandra is one of the first in the world to conduct large data-based research of court interpreted proceedings, using a combination of innovative research methods that have been later adopted by other researchers. Her research has not only described current interpreting practices, but also tested their effect on judicial outcomes. Using authentic court transcripts, her research micro-analysed the discoursal interaction between the law, the non-English speaking witnesses, and the interpreters, with particular attention to the impact of the interpreters’ renditions on the effect of strategic questions and on juror evaluations of witness testimony. Sandra is also among the few to have conducted experimental studies in the field. The results of her study shed light on the meaning of accuracy in the courtroom setting and led to the development of a model of court interpreting accuracy, informed by Pragmatic theory, which is now widely used as a basis for interpreting training and as a theoretical model for PhD research.

All of Sandra’s research has practical applications for interpreting training and practice, as well as for policy on court interpreting. Sandra has actively disseminated the results of research not only among academics, but also among practising interpreters, legal practitioners and the judiciary, which has helped to raise awareness of interpreting issues and achieve better judicial outcomes. She has been invited to provide expert advice on interpreting for a Supreme Court appeal on the grounds of incompetent interpreting, and is cited in the NSW Judges’ Bench book (Judicial Commission of NSW) and Protocols for Working with Interpreters (Northern Territory Supreme Court). Sandra is currently working on the following research projects:

  • Interpreting justice: mode, accuracy and credibility (ARC Discovery grant)
  • Interpreting mode, interpreter presence, and language in investigative interviews (FBI grant)
  • Interpreters in court: witness credibility with interpreted testimony (ARC Linkage grant)
  • Participation in the administration of justice: Deaf citizens as jurors (ARC Linkage grant)
  • Communication Skills training for oncology health care professionals working with culturally and linguistically diverse patients (ARC Linkage grant)
  • A phase II randomised controlled trial of consultation audiorecordings plus question prompt lists for people with cancer from Greek, Chinese or Arabic background (NHMRC grant)

Awards

  • 2016 Elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities
  • 2015 Recipient of the Dean’s Award for Programs that Enhance Learning, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales
  • 2015 Conferred Dean's Award for Research Society Impact, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales
  • 2014 Elected National AUSIT President
  • 2014 Conferred Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Antwerp
  • 2013 Appointed Fellow of The Australian Institute of Interpreters & Translators (AUSIT)
  • 2007 Awarded the UWS Vice-Chancellor’s Excellence award for University Engagement (Commended)
  • 2007 NAATI Recognition Award
  • 2001 Awarded the Macquarie University Vice-Chancellor’s Award and Dean’s Commendation for PhD thesis

Publications

    Books

    • Hale S; Napier J, 2013, Research Methods in Interpreting: A Practical Resource, 1st, Bloomsbury, London & New York, http://www.bloomsbury.com/au/research-methods-in-interpreting-9781441168511/
    • Hale S, 2010, La interpretación comunitaria, Original, Editorial Comares, Granada
    • Hale S, 2007, Community Interpreting, Original, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK
    • Hale S, 2004, The discourse of court interpreting., Original, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • Valverde E; Hale S; Ramirez E, 1994, Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of Nine Key Languages in Australia, Original, National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia, 112 Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia

    Book Chapters

    • Hale S; Napier J, 2015, 'Methodology', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 257 - 260, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
    • Hale S, 2015, 'Register', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 338 - 339, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
    • Hale S, 2015, 'Community Interpreting', in Pochhacker F (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 65 - 69, https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415634328
    • Hale S, 2011, 'Public Service Interpreting', in The Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, edn. Original, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 343 - 357
    • Hale S, 2010, 'The need to raise the bar. Court interpreters as specialized experts', in Coulthard M; Johnson A (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics, edn. Original, Routledge, New York
    • Ozolins U; Hale S; Stern L, 2009, 'Quality in interpreting: A shared responsibility', in The Critical Link 5. Quality in interpreting - a shared responsibility, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 1 - 10
    • Hale S, 2008, 'Controversies over the role of the court interpreter', in Valero-Garcés C; Martin A (ed.), Crossing Borders in Community Interpreting, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 99 - 121
    • Hale S; Russell D, 2008, 'Introduction', in Russell D; Hale SB (ed.), Interpreting in Legal Settings, edn. Illustrated, Gallaudet University Press, Washington D.C, http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9781563684319?auth=0
    • Hale S, 2005, 'The interpreter's identity crisis', in House J; Baumgarten N (ed.), Translation and the construction of identity, edn. Original, IATIS, USA, pp. 14 - 29
    • Hale S, 2005, 'Los interpretes y su influencia en la evaluacion del caracter de los testigos en el sistema acusatorio', in Turell M (ed.), Lingüística forense, lengua y derecho: conceptos, métodos y aplicaciones, edn. Original, Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada, Barcelona, pp. 221 - 232
    • Hale S; Campbell S, 2003, 'Translation and Interpreting Assessment in the Context of Educational Measurement', in Translation today: trends and perspectives, edn. Original, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 205 - 224
    • Hale S, 2001, 'Review article on trasvases culturales: literatura, cine, traduccion.', in Translatio XX, edn. Original, pp. 255 - 273
    • Hale S, 2001, 'How are courtroom questions interpreted? An analysis of Spanish interpreters' practices', in Mason I (ed.), Triadic Exchanges. Studies in Dialogue Interpreting, edn. Original, St. Jerome Pub., Manchester, pp. 21 - 50
    • Hale S, 1997, 'The interpreter on trial: Pragmatics in court interpreting', in Carr SE; Roberts RP; Dufour A; Steyn D (ed.), The Critical Link: Interpreters in the Community, edn. Original, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 201 - 211

    Journal articles

    • Spencer D; San Roque M; Hale SB; Napier J, 2017, 'The High Court Considers Participation of Deaf People in Jury Duty', Law Society Journal, vol. 33, pp. 80 - 81, https://www.lawsociety.com.au/resources/journal/LSJOnline/index.htm
    • Hale SB; Martschuk N; Ozolins U; Stern L, 2017, 'The effect of interpreting modes on witness credibility assessments', Interpreting, vol. 19, pp. 70 - 97, https://benjamins.com/#catalog/journals/intp.19.1.04hal/details
    • Watts KJ; Meiser B; Zilliacus E; Kaur R; Taouk M; Girgis A; Butow P; Goldstein D; Hale S; Perry A, 2017, 'Communicating with patients from minority backgrounds: Individual challenges experienced by oncology health professionals', European Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 26, pp. 83 - 90, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2016.12.001
    • Lipson-Smith R; Hyatt A; Butow P; Hack TF; Jefford M; Hale S; Hocking A; Sirianni M; Ozolins U; Yiu D, 2016, 'Are audio recordings the answer? — a pilot study of a communication intervention for non-English speaking patients with cancer', Psycho-Oncology, pp. 1237 - 1240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4193
    • Hale SB; Napier J, 2016, '"We're just kind of there" Working conditions and perceptions of appreciation and status in court interpreting', Target, vol. 28, pp. 351 - 371, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.28.3.01hal
    • Hale S, 2015, 'Approaching the bench: Teaching magistrates and judges how to work effectively with interpreters', Monografias de Traduccion e Interpretacion, vol. 2015, pp. 163 - 180, http://dx.doi.org/10.6035/MonTI.2015.7.6
    • Hale S; Liddicoat A, 2015, 'The meaning of accuracy and culture, and the rise of the machine in interpreting and translation. A conversation between Sandra Hale and Anthony Liddicoat.', Cultus: The Journal of Intercultural Mediation and Communication, vol. 2015, pp. 14 - 26, http://cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/Hale_Liddicoat_Cultus_8.pdf
    • Stern L; Hale S, 2015, 'Sharing the responsibility for interpreting quality in the context of a small conference’', Revista Ideas Lenguas Modernas, vol. 1, http://p3.usal.edu.ar/index.php/ideas/issue/view/261
    • Stern L; Ozolins U; Hale SB, 2015, 'Inefficiencies of court administration despite participants' goodwill', Journal of Judicial Administration, vol. 25, pp. 76 - 95, http://sites.thomsonreuters.com.au/journals/category/journal-of-judicial-administration/
    • Hale S, 2014, 'Interpreting culture. Dealing with cross-cultural issues in court interpreting', Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, vol. 22, pp. 321 - 331, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2013.827226
    • Hale S; Ozolins U, 2014, 'Monolingual short courses for language-specific accreditation: Can they work? A Sydney experience', Interpreter and Translator Trainer, vol. 8, pp. 217 - 239, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1750399X.2014.929371
    • Goodman-Delahunty J; Gumbert-Jourjon T; Hale S, 2014, 'The biasing influence of linguistic variations in DNA profiling evidence', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 348 - 360, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00450618.2013.877080
    • Mo, Yongjun; hale S, 2014, 'Translation and Interpreting Education and Training: Student Voices', International Journal of Interpreter Education, vol. 6, pp. 19 - 34, http://www.cit-asl.org/new/ijie/volume-6-1/
    • Hale SB, 2013, 'Helping interpreters to truly and faithfully interpret the evidence: The importance of briefing and preparation materials', Australian Bar Review, vol. 37, pp. 307 - 320
    • Hale S; Bond N; Sutton J, 2011, 'Interpreting accent in the courtroom', Target, vol. 23, pp. 48 - 61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.23.1.03hal
    • Hale S, 2011, 'The positive side of community interpreting', Interpreting, vol. 13, pp. 234 - 248, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/intp.13.2.04hal
    • Hale S; Stern L, 2011, 'Interpreter quality and working conditions: comparing Australian and international courts of justice', Judicial Officers' Bulletin, vol. 23, pp. 75 - 78, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=473459095094748;res=IELHSS
    • Hayes A; Hale S, 2010, 'Appeals on incompetent interpreting', Journal of Judicial Administration, vol. 20, pp. 119 - 130
    • Friedman E; Hale S, 2010, 'Teaching medical students to work with interpreters', The Journal of Specialised Translation, vol. 14, pp. 121 - 144
    • Hale S, 2007, 'The challenges of court interpreting: intricacies, responsibilities and ramifications', Alternative Law Journal, vol. 32, pp. 198 - 202
    • Hale S, 2006, 'Themes and methodological issues in Court Interpreting research', Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series - Themes in Translation Studies, vol. 5, pp. 205 - 228
    • Hale S; Campbell S, 2002, 'The interaction between text difficulty and translation accuracy', Babel, vol. 48, pp. 14 - 33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.48.1.02hal
    • Hale S, 2002, 'How faithfully do court interpreters render the style of non-English speaking witnesses' testimonies? A data-based study of Spanish—English bilingual proceedings', Discourse Studies, vol. 4, pp. 25 - 47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14614456020040010201
    • Hale S, 1999, 'Interpreters' treatment of discourse markers in courtroom questions', Speech, Language and the Law, vol. 6, pp. 57 - 82
    • Hale S; Gibbons J, 1999, 'Varying realities: Patterned changes in the interpreter's representation of courtroom and external realities', Applied Linguistics, vol. 20, pp. 203 - 220
    • Hale S; Gibbons J, 1999, 'Varying Realities: Patterned changes in the Interpreter's representation of courtroom and extrenal realities', Applied Linguistics, vol. 20, pp. 203 - 220, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093
    • Eades D; Cooke M; Hale S, 1999, 'Introduction', Forensic Linguistics, vol. 6, pp. 1 - 5
    • Hale S, 1998, 'El interprete, garantiza la iguldad ante la Ley? El caso de Australia', Sociedad Argentina de Linguistica, vol. 1, pp. 7 - 17
    • Hale S, 1997, 'The Treatment of Register Variation in Court Interpreting', The Translator, vol. 3, pp. 39 - 54
    • Hale S, 1997, 'Clash of World Perspectives: The discursive practices of the law, the witness and the interpreter', The International Journal of Speech, Language and law, vol. 4, pp. 197 - 209
    • Hale S, 1996, 'Pragmatic considerations in court interpreting', Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 19, pp. 61 - 72

    Conference Papers

    • Hale S, 2013, 'Alerting the court and tribunal about cultural differences – expectations of judicial officers and tribunal members', in Translation as intercultural mediation - 14-15 November 2013, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, presented at Translation as intercultural mediation, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, 14 - 15 November 2013
    • Hale S, 2003, 'Excuse me, the interpreter wants to speak" -Interpreter interruptions in the courtroom: why do interpreters interrupt and what are the consequences?', in Excuse me, the interpreter wants to speak" -Interpreter interruptions in the courtroom: why do interpreters interrupt and what are the consequences?, Interpreting in the Community : the Complexity of the Profession, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 1 - 8, presented at Interpreting in the Community : the Complexity of the Profession, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 22 - 26 May 2001, http://fr.criticallink.org/files/CL3_Hale.pdf
    • Hale S; Campbell S, 1999, 'What makes a text difficult to translate?', in What makes a text difficult to translate?, Proceedings of the 23rd Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), presented at Proceedings of the 23rd Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), 01 January 1999
    • Hale S, 1999, 'La inmigración y los servicios de intérpretes en Australia Refereed Proceedings of the Memories of Migration', in La inmigración y los servicios de intérpretes en Australia Refereed Proceedings of the Memories of Migration, The Spanish experience in Australia conference, UWS Macarthur, Sydney, pp. 125 - 130, presented at The Spanish experience in Australia conference, UWS Macarthur, Sydney, 05 September 1998

    Reports

    • Hale S; Goodman-Delahunty J; Martschuk N; Dhami MK, 2014, Effects on situational and relational variables on interpreting in high stakes interviewing, Charles Sturt University, Manly
    • Hale S; Garcia I; Hlavac J; Kim M; Lai M; Turner B; Slatyer H, 2012, Improvements to NAATI testing. Development of a conceptual overview for a new model for NAATI standards, testing and assessment, National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters, Sydney, http://www.naati.com.au/PDF/INT/INTFinalReport.pdf
    • Hale S, 2011, Interpreter Policies, Practices and Protocols in Australian Courts and Tribunals – A National Survey, Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration, Melbourne, 89, http://www.aija.org.au/online/Pub%20no89.pdf

    Edited Books

    • 2009, The Critical Link 5. Quality in interpreting: A shared responsibility, John Benajmins Publishing Company, Amsterdam and Philladelphia
    • 2008, Interpreting in legal settings, Gallaudet University Press, Washington D.C.

Teaching

Sandra has taught court interpreting, conference interpreting, discourse analysis, linguistics, Spanish language, legal discourse and research methods. She currently teaches Interpreting courses in the Interpreting and Translation Programs in the School of Humanities and Languages.

Postgraduate Research Supervision

* Han Xu: How far can interpreters go? A comparatrive study of community interpreters' role in Australia and China (PhD)

* Xin Liu: Fidelity in Consecutive Interpreting - A Contrastive Study between Expert and Novice Interpreters (PhD)

* Sophia Ra: Cross-cultural commuincation: A qualitative study of interpreter-mediated medical encounters between Korean patients and Australian doctors (PhD)

* Rebeca Parades: How do cross cultural differences affect conference interpreters' ability to understand and render the original messages into the target language? On the conference interpreter's (in)visibility and neutrality (PhD)

Completed Research students
* Erika Gonzalez: Trained vs untrained interpreters in Community interpreting (PhD)

* Yongjun Mo: Interpreting and Translation Training: The students' voices (GradDip, Research in Interpreting)

Honours and prizes

2016 Elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities

2015 Recipient of the Dean’s Award for Programs that Enhance Learning, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales

2015 Recipient of the Dean's Award for Research Society Impact, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales

2015 Elected National AUSIT President

2014 Conferred Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Antwerp

2013 Appointed Fellow of The Australian Institute of Interpreters & Translators (AUSIT)

2007 Awarded the UWS Vice-Chancellor’s Excellence award for University Engagement (Commended)

2007 NAATI recognition award

2001 Awarded the Macquarie University Vice-Chancellor’s Award and Dean’s Commendation for PhD thesis

Professional contribution

Sandra is the national President of AUSIT as well as an AUSIT Fellow. She is regularly invited to give presentations on Interpreting to judicial officers, tribunal members and lawyers. She has also led a number of important national consultancy projects, including the training of the 2000 Olympic language volunteers, the training of all the Community Relations Commission legal interpreters funded by the NSW Attorney General’s Department and the NAATI INT review (PDF). Her books The discourse of court interpreting and Community Interpreting are widely used as text books nationally and internationally, with the latter one already translated into Spanish and Japanese. In 2014 she received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Antwerp, Belgium, and in 2016 she was elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.

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